J1 is a small (200 lines of Verilog) stack-based CPU, intended for FPGAs. A complete J1 with 16Kbytes of RAM fits easily on a small Xilinx FPGA. Some highlights:
- Extremely high code density. A complete system including the TCP/IP stack fits in under 8K bytes.
- Single cycle call, zero cycle return
- Instruction set maps trivially to Forth
- Cross compiler runs on Windows, Mac and Unix
- Basic software includes a sizeable subset of ANS Forth and a portable TCP/IP networking stack.
More recently it was shown at SVFIG Forth Day 2010 on an XESS FPGA board (see Loading the XESS XSA-3S1000 from Python) running a few demonstration programs, including space invaders, Forth source invaders.fs.
The code is at j1demo.tar.gz.
The J1 is a simple 16-bit CPU. It has some RAM, a program counter (PC), a data stack and a call/return stack. It has a small set of built-in arithmetic instructions. Fields in the J1 instructions control the arithmetic function, and write the results back to the data stacks. There are more details on instruction coding in the paper.
The J1 is probably close to the simplest possible useful CPU.
The CPU was designed to run Forth programs very efficiently: the machine’s instructions are so close to Forth that there is little benefit to writing code in assembler. Effectively Forth is the assembly language. J1 runs at about 100 Forth MIPS on a typical FPGA. This compares with about 0.1 Forth MIPS for a traditional threaded Forth running on an embedded 8-bit CPU.
To build the j1 binary j1.bin with gforth, do:
$ cd j1demo/firmware $ make j1.bin
The code that defines the basic Forth operations as J1 instructions is in basewords.fs
The next layer up defines basic operations in terms of these simple words. These include many of the CORE words from the DPANS94 Forth standard. Some of the general facilities provided by nuc.fs
- byte memory access
- string handling
- double precision (i.e. 32 bit) math
- one’s complement addition
- memory copy and fill
- multiplication and division, fractional arithmetic
- pictured numeric output
- debug words: memory and stack dump, assert
The above files - about 2K of code - bring the J1 to the point where it can start to define application-specific code.
The Ethernet driver is responsible for packet reception and transmission. This component deals with the various supported pieces of MAC hardware above.
Supported hardware for the Ethernet driver:
- The Microchip ENC28J60
- The open source MAC used in the PR2’s cameras
- The AX88796 used in the XESS development board eth-ax88796.fs